In 2013, Swedish GHG emissions totalled.8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents, compared with.8 million tonnes in 1990 a 22 per cent reduction. Waste management, acid rain prevention, sustainable city planning and recycling are other environmental areas in which Sweden have made progressive headway and challenged the status quo. The electricity certificate system initiated in 2003 is a market-based support system to increase the production of renewable electricity and make the production more cost-efficient. Changes not only affect local biodiversity and polar ice, but the entire earth through rising ocean levels. Besides moving to less carbon-intensive means of producing energy, efficiency has been a major focus in Sweden. Four Swedish environmental actors The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency presents proposals for environmental policy and legislation to the government and ensures that environmental policy decisions are implemented. Instead, Sweden has chosen to do more than many other countries on issues regarding energy and the climate. That is Swedens commitment under Roadmap 2050, an EU initiative whose objective is to reduce GHG emissions by at least 80 per cent below 1990 levels for all. Swedens stance is that a sustainable and secure energy supply is best achieved by focusing on long-term energy efficiency and a greater supply of renewable energy. Expenditure on R D (research and development) represented.3 per cent of GDP in 2013, the fourth highest percentage in the oecd. In the mid-1990s, Stockholm decided to turn former industrial area Hammarby into a forerunner of sustainable city planning. Today, it is a carbon-neutral neighbourhood.
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